Cosmology that Contradicts the Big Bang Theory

The Standard and The Alternative Cosmological Models, Distances Calculation to Galaxies without Hubble Constant

Abstract. For the alternative cosmological models discussed in the book, distances are calculated for galaxies without using the Hubble constant. This process is mentioned in the second narrative and is described in detail in the third narrative. According to the third narrative, when the energy density of space in the universe decreases, and the universe expands, a new space is created by a phase transition from dark energy. Although the Universe develops on the basis of this postulate about the appearance of a new space, it is assumed that matter arises as a result of such a phase transition into both new dark space and visible / baryonic matter. It is somewhat unimportant how we describe dark energy, calling it ether, gravitons, or vice versa, turning ether into dark energy. It should be clear to everyone that this renaming does not change the essence of this phase transition. It should be noted that, unlike all the known geometric models of the Euclidean space of our existence, this phase transition of dark energy into matter, respectively, will be a stereographic projection of a three-dimensional surface of a four-dimensional globe.

Keywords: Universe Composition, Dark Matter, Red Shift, Visible Matter, Dark Energy